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In the world of politics, **polarization** (or **polarisation**) can refer to the divergence of political attitudes to ideological extremes. Polarization can refer to such divergence like public opinion or even to such divergence within certain groups. Almost all discussions of polarization in political science consider polarization in the context of political parties and democratic systems of government. When polarization occurs in a two-party system, like the United States, moderate voices often lose power and influence. According to the Pew Forum, America has never been more polarized, except perhaps during the period leading up to the American Civil War.

Political polarization refers to cases in which an individual's stance on a given issue, policy, or person is more likely to be strictly defined by their identification with a particular political party (e.g., Democrat or Republican) or ideology (e.g., liberal or conservative). According to DiMaggio et al. (1996), "Polarization is both a state and a process. Polarization as a state refers to the extent to which opinions on an issue are opposed in relation to some theoretical maximum. Polarization as a process refers to the increase in such opposition over time." Some political scientists argue that polarization requires divergence on a broad range of issues based on a consistent set of beliefs. Others argue polarization occurs when there are stark partisan or ideological divides, even if opinion is polarized only on a few issues.

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/Polarization_(politics)

In mathematics, particularly in algebraic geometry, complex analysis and number theory, an **abelian variety** is a projective algebraic variety that is also an algebraic group, i.e., has a group law that can be defined by regular functions. Abelian varieties are at the same time among the most studied objects in algebraic geometry and indispensable tools for much research on other topics in algebraic geometry and number theory.

An abelian variety can be defined by equations having coefficients in any field; the variety is then said to be defined *over* that field. Historically the first abelian varieties to be studied were those defined over the field of complex numbers. Such abelian varieties turn out to be exactly those complex tori that can be embedded into a complex projective space. Abelian varieties defined over algebraic number fields are a special case, which is important also from the viewpoint of number theory. Localization techniques lead naturally from abelian varieties defined over number fields to ones defined over finite fields and various local fields. Since a number field is the fraction field of a Dedekind domain, for any nonzero prime of your Dedekind domain, there is a map from the Dedekind domain to the quotient of the Dedekind domain by the prime, which is a finite field for all finite primes. This induces a map from the fraction field to any such finite field. Given a curve with equation defined over the number field, we can apply this map to the coefficients to get a curve defined over some finite field, where the choices of finite field correspond to the finite primes of the number field.

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/Abelian_variety

**Polarization** in communications and psychology, is the definition given to the behavior of a social or political group to split based on opposing views. OVER time, more and more members of the original group join one or the other split group and fewer and fewer members remain neutral. This brings the two sides or "poles" further and further apart.

During polarization, there is a tendency for the opposing sides of the argument to make increasingly disagreeable statements, thereby creating more and more distance between the two sides. This is known as the "pendulum effect". Thus, it is commonly observed in polarized groups that judgments made after group discussion on a given subject tend to be more extreme than judgments made by individual group members prior to the discussion.

This process is also known as 'group polarization'. In the past, it was referred to as the 'risky shift phenomenon' and particularly referenced decision-making by a jury.

Studies have surprisingly found that groups make riskier decision than individuals do. An example of this is given in a study conducted by Wallach and colleagues: When deciding alone, people said the chess player should make risky choices only if the chances of success are 30% or higher. However, after discussing the issue with other participants in the a group, people changed their mind and decided that the chess player should go for the move even if there was only a 10% chance of success.

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/Polarization_(psychology)

**Transfer** may refer to:

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/Transfer

* Death Note* is a 37-episode anime series based on the manga series of the same title written by Tsugumi Ohba and illustrated by Takeshi Obata.

A three-hour "Director's Cut" compilation TV special, titled "Death Note: Relight: Visions of a God", aired on NTV a few months after the anime concluded. Although advertised to be the "complete conclusion", the popularity of the series inspired the release of a second TV special, titled "Death Note: Relight 2: L's Successors" nearly a year later. These specials recap the first and second arcs of the anime respectively, with new scenes added to fill in any plot holes resulted from omitted footage.

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/List_of_Death_Note_episodes

A **transfer** allows the rider of a public transportation vehicle who pays for a single-trip fare to continue the trip on another bus or train. Depending on the network, there may or may not be an additional fee for the transfer. Historically, transfers may have been stamped or hole-punched with the time, date, and direction of travel to prevent their use for a return trip. More recently, magnetic or barcoded tickets may be recorded (as on international flights) or ticket barriers may only charge on entry and exit to a larger system (as on modern underground rail networks).

Some public transport companies may honor transfers purchased from another company with connecting service.

This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/Transfer_(public_transit)

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